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Tuesday, April 21, 2020 | History

1 edition of Formation and Interactions of Topological Defects found in the catalog.

Formation and Interactions of Topological Defects

Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Formation and Interactions of Topological Defects, held August 22-September 2, 1994, in Cambridge, England

by Anne-Christine Davis

  • 371 Want to read
  • 10 Currently reading

Published by Springer US in Boston, MA .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Nuclear physics,
  • Physics

  • Edition Notes

    Other titlesProceedings of a NATO ASI held in Cambridge, England, August 22-September 2, 1994
    Statementedited by Anne-Christine Davis, Robert Brandenberger
    SeriesNATO ASI Series, Series B: Physics -- 349, NATO ASI series -- 349.
    ContributionsBrandenberger, Robert
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsQB4
    The Physical Object
    Format[electronic resource] :
    Pagination1 online resource (viii, 397 p.)
    Number of Pages397
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL27039485M
    ISBN 101461357675, 1461518830
    ISBN 109781461357674, 9781461518839
    OCLC/WorldCa852789328


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Formation and Interactions of Topological Defects by Anne-Christine Davis Download PDF EPUB FB2

Topological defects can play an important role in describing the properties of many condensed matter systems (e.g. superfluids and superconduc­ tors); they can catalyze many unusual effects in particle physics models and they may be responsible for seeding the density perturbations in the early Universe which de­ velop into galaxies and the large-scale structure of the : Paperback.

Topological defects can play an important role in describing the properties of many condensed matter systems (e.g. superfluids and superconduc­ tors); they can catalyze many unusual effects in particle physics models and they may be responsible for seeding the density perturbations in the early Universe which de­ velop into galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe.

Topological defects can play an important role in describing the properties of many condensed matter systems (e.g. superfluids and superconduc tors); they can catalyze many unusual effects in particle physics models and they may be responsible for seeding the density perturbations in the early Universe which de velop into galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe.

COVID Resources. Reliable information about the coronavirus (COVID) is available from the World Health Organization (current situation, international travel).Numerous and frequently-updated resource results are available from this ’s WebJunction has pulled together information and resources to assist library staff as they consider how to handle coronavirus.

We have studied the formation, interactions and cosmological implications of topological defects. The following original contributions are presented in this thesis.

We introduce a scheme for numerically investigating the formation of cosmic strings without assuming the geodesic rule. Our results show that the fraction of string in infinite strings grows as we deviate from the geodesic : Levon Edward Pogosian. rst-order phase transitions, then briefly discuss the relevance of defect interactions after a phase transition and the observational signatures of cosmic strings.

Some open questions are also discussed. Formation of Defects A number of talks at this school have been dedicated to the density of topological defects formed at a phase transition. Request PDF | OnYu. Bunkov and others published Book Review: Topological defects and the non-equilibrium dynamics of symmetry-breaking phase transitions / Kluwer, |.

The obtained semi-analytical results are demonstrated by numerical simulations. The interactions of global monopoles are studied in sect.

The detailed form of the L. Perivolaropoulos / Global topological defects interaction potential is obtained and its dominant part at large distances is verified by a numerical by: We introduce a generalized version of the Ginzburg-Landau equation which supports long-range topological defects in D = 1 and D > 1.

The interaction force between the defects decays so slowly that it is possible to enter the non-extensivity regime. These results can be applied to non-equilibrium systems, pattern formation and growth by: Topological defects are produced during phase transitions in the very early Universe.

They arise in most unified theories of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions. This article focuses on the role of topological defects in cosmology, with particular emphasis on the models of structure formation based on by:   Buy Formation and Interactions of Topological Defects by Anne Christine Davis, Robert Brandenburger from Waterstones today.

Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK delivery on orders over £Pages: Formation, interaction and observation of topological defects: Authors: Vachaspati, T. Publication: Topological Defects and the Non-Equilibrium Dynamics of Symmetry Breaking Phase Transitions.

Edited by Y.M. Bunkov and H. Godfrin. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht-Holland. NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series. Volume C, experiment. Topological defect models provide such a class of models. In defect models, topological defects which form during a phase transition in the very early Universe provide the seeds about which galaxies and even larger structures form by gravitational clustering.

The most promising of the defect models is the cosmic string theory [2]. In these lectures, I describe the formation of defect distributions in first-order phase transitions, then briefly discuss the relevance of defect interactions after a phase transition and the observational signatures of cosmic strings.

Some open questions are also : Tanmay Vachaspati. Topological defects formed at symmetry-breaking phase transitions play an important role in many different fields of physics. They appear in many condensed-matter systems at low temperature; examples include vortices in superfluid helium-4, a rich variety of defects in helium-3, quantized mag netic flux tubes in type-II superconductors, and disclination lines and other defects in liquid crystals.

Formation and Interactions of Topological Defects: Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Formation and Interactions of Topological Defects, held August September 2,in Cambridge, England.

Abstract. These lectures review the important role of the Riemannian geometry of the moduli space (parameter space) of multi-defect field configurations in defect scattering.

Also reviewed is one example of the statistical mechanics of a gas of defects, where the equation of state can be calculated using geometrical by: 1. The spontaneous transformations associated with symmetry-breaking phase transitions generate domain structures and defects that may be topological in nature.

The formation of these defects can be described according to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, which provides a generic relation that applies from cosmological to interatomic lengthscales.

netic and weak interactions. Topological defects in the context of symmetry breaking were rst extensively discussed by Nielsen and Olesen [15] in the s, who discovered the possibility of string-like topological defects due to symmetry breaking.

The line of discoveries was continued by. Formation, Interaction and Observation of Topological Defects. By T Vachaspati. Get PDF ( KB) Abstract. In these lectures, I describe the formation of defect distributions in first-order phase transitions, then briefly discuss the relevance of defect interactions after a phase transition and the observational signatures of cosmic strings.

Author: T Vachaspati. The formation process of domain walls and global strings were investigated through the breaking of initially ordered states.

To mimic conditions in the early Universe, cooling times are chosen so that horizons exist in the sample volume when topological structure formation occurs. In cosmology, unified gauge theories of particle interactions suggest a sequence of phase transitions in the very early uni­ verse some of which may lead to defect formation.

In astrophysics, defects play an important role in the dynamics of neutron stars. In the European Science Foundation started the scientific network "Topological. Abstract. TOPOLOGICAL defects formed during a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition in the early Universe 1,2 could be responsible for seeding large-scale structure, for the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation, and for the predominance of matter over antimatter 3,4.

The theory describing this cosmological phase transition is Cited by:   Now in paperback, this book is the first comprehensive and coherent introduction to the role of cosmic strings and other topological defects in the universe.

This study has been one of the major driving forces in cosmology over the last decade, and lies at the fruitful intersection of. Here is a topological defect in a crystal. We can see that one of the rows of atoms on the right disappears halfway through our sample.

The place where it disappears is a defect, because it doesn't locally look like a piece of the perfect crystal. It is a topological defect because it can't be fixed by any local rearrangement.

We use in situ Lorentz microscopy and off-axis electron holography to investigate the formation and characteristics of skyrmion lattice defects and their relationship to the underlying crystallographic structure of a B20 FeGe thin film. We obtain experimental measurements of spin configurations at grain boundaries, which reveal inversions of crystallographic and magnetic chirality across Cited by: The formation of defects in the early universe is investigated using the Kibble mechanism.

The distinction between topological and nontopological defects is discussed. Topological defects are generically expected to form in models of brane inflation. Brane-anti-brane annihilation provides a way to gracefully end inflation, and the dynamics of the tachyon field results in defect formation.

Defect states and exciton of two-dimensional semiconductors play an important role in fundamental research and device applications. Here, we reported the defect emissions and exciton–lattice interaction of bilayer WS2. These defect emissions show a very narrow linewidth, doublet peaks, spatial localization, saturation with pumping power and can survive up to by: 1.

The cell flow and defects within the alignment pattern of cultured mouse neural progenitor cells are described. Kyogo Kawaguchi et al. show that particular sorts of defect structures in cultures Cited by: The quantum origin of topological defects and their interaction with quanta is a crucial issue for the understanding of symmetry breaking phase transitions and structure formation in a wide range of systems from condensed matter to cosmology.

Deliberately not discussing other important problems, primarily renormalization problems, this book. We consider the formation of point and line topological defects (monopoles and strings) from a general point of view by allowing the probability of formation of a defect to vary. To investigate the statistical properties of the defects at formation we give qualitative arguments that are independent of any particular model in which such defects Cited by: CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Abstract.

A brief outline is given of the description of phase transition kinetics in condensed matter systems with a continuous symmetry, emphasising the roles of dissipation, coarse-graining and scaling. The possible relevance of these ideas to the early universe is explored in the contexts of the GUT string.

A more detailed discussion of topological solitons and related topics is provided below. In mathematics and physics, a topological soliton or a topological defect is a solution of a system of partial differential equations or of a quantum field theory homotopically distinct from the vacuum solution.

Topological defects that spontaneously occur in condensed matter and structured fluids such as liquid crystals are useful for their elastic and optical properties, but often the applicability of defect arrays to optics and photonic devices relies on the regularity and tunability of the system.

In our recent work [Adv. Opt. Mater. 8, ()], we showed the formation of regular. The defect shown in (a) may be treated as a magnetic monopole-antimonopole pair, which resides in an effective 3D Minkowski metamaterial spacetime.

The defect shown in (b) represents a simple braid structure, while the defect shown in (c) represents a y-split. Multiple examples of such point defects may be found in figure The defect areas. Abstract By resorting to some results in quantum field theories with spontaneous breakdown of symmetry we show that an explanation based on microscopic dynamics can.

Results and Discussion. Previous theories have predicted that a lipid vesicle with in-plane tilt order will have a smooth and elongated ground state with a defect of charge +1 at each end (13, 14).To test this prediction experimentally, we prepare GUVs in water from the lipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine (DPPC) above the melting temperature T m, using an electro-formation Cited by:   Defect formation dynamics helps us in predicting the resistance against the defect formation and also the stability of graphene containing defects.

Defect formation dynamics was studied as defects are an integral part of graphene, due to limitations associated with Cited by: 5. Education and Research Career.

After graduating from Stuyvesant High School in New York City, Paul Chaikin earned his B.S. in physics from California Institute of Technology inand his Ph.D.

in physics from the University of Pennsylvania in working with Kondo superconductors. He joined the physics faculty at the University of California, Los Angeles in and studied thermopower. The scattering of Dirac electrons by topological defects could be one of the most relevant sources of resistance in graphene and at the boundary surfaces of a three-dimensional topological insulator (3D TI).

In the long wavelength, continuous limit of the Dirac equation, the topological defect can be described as a distortion of the metric in curved space, which can be accounted for by a Cited by: 7.NATO Advanced Study Institute on Formation and Interactions of Topological Defects ( Cambridge, England) NATO Advanced Study Institute on Formation and Interactions of Topological Defects (Aug., Sep., 2 (Cambridge).Whether it is biological matter such as cytoskeletal networks, cellular colonies and suspensions of bacteria or synthetic systems such as Janus catalysts and vibrating granular rods, continuous injection of energy from the constituent elements leads to exotic behaviour such as collective motion 1,2,3, pattern formation 4,5,6,7, topological defects 8,9,10 and active turbule12,Cited by: